Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor in the genesis of lung cancer 421 American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2012. Among the harmful actions of cigarette smoke is its ability to give rise to numerous antioxidants that can deplete the body’s antioxidant reserves
2 Adcock IM, Caramori G, Barnes PJ.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer: new molecular insights. Respiration. 2011; 81:265-84. . Taking account of this aspect, it has been shown that cigarette smoke decreases the plasma concentration of lycopene by 10-15% 3 Graham DL, Carail M, Caris-Veyrat C, Lowe GM. Cigarette smoke and human plasma lycopene depletion. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48:2413-20. . Carotenoids have long been believed to be capable of reducing the risk of lung cancer due to their antioxidant activity 4Krinsky NI, Johnson EJ. Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease. Mol Aspects Med. 2005; 26:459-516. 5 Arab L, Steck-Scott S, Fleishauer AT. Lycopene and the lung. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2002; 227:894-9. but recent results emerging from the VITAL study show that ╬▓-carotene, retinol and lutein actually increase the risk while the opposite is true of lycopene, even though the lycopene result was based only on a few patients 6 Satia JA, Littman A, Slatore CG, et al. Long-term use of beta-carotene, retinol, lycopene, and lutein supplements and lung cancer risk: results from the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 169:815-28. . In the prevention of lung cancer caused by exposure to smoke, experimental studies have shown that lycopene acts not only due to its antioxidant activity but also by inhibiting molecular signals (e.g. IGF, DNA aducts) activated by the smoke 7 Palozza P, Simone R, Catalano A, et al. Lycopene modulation of molecular targets affected by smoking exposure. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2012; 12:640-57. .

References   [ + ]

1. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2012
2. Adcock IM, Caramori G, Barnes PJ.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer: new molecular insights. Respiration. 2011; 81:265-84.
3. Graham DL, Carail M, Caris-Veyrat C, Lowe GM. Cigarette smoke and human plasma lycopene depletion. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48:2413-20.
4. Krinsky NI, Johnson EJ. Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease. Mol Aspects Med. 2005; 26:459-516.
5. Arab L, Steck-Scott S, Fleishauer AT. Lycopene and the lung. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2002; 227:894-9.
6. Satia JA, Littman A, Slatore CG, et al. Long-term use of beta-carotene, retinol, lycopene, and lutein supplements and lung cancer risk: results from the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 169:815-28.
7. Palozza P, Simone R, Catalano A, et al. Lycopene modulation of molecular targets affected by smoking exposure. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2012; 12:640-57.